The emission trends for air pollutants are determined by three factors: the change in driving forces (fossil-fuel use, fertilizer use), the assumed air pollution control policy, and the assumed climate policy (as the last induces changes in energy consumption leading to changes (generally reductions) in air polluting emissions). We have illustrated the trends in air pollutants by looking at SOdos and NOx (Fig. 7). In general, similar trends can be seen for other air pollutants.
RCP6 and RCPcuatro
Emissions of SO2 and NOx across the RCPs. Grey area indicates the 90th percentile of the literature (only scenarios included in Van Vuuren et al. 2008b, i.e. 22 scenarios; the scenarios were also harmonized for their starting year-but using a different inventory). Dotted lines indicate SRES scenarios. The different studies use slightly different data for the start year
All RCPs include the assumption that air pollution control becomes more stringent, over time, as a result of rising income levels. Globally, this would cause emissions to decrease, over time-although trends can be different for specific regions or at particular moments in time. A second factor that influences the results across the RCPs is climate policy. In general, the lowest emissions are found for the scenario with the most stringent climate policy (RCP2.6) and the highest for the scenario without climate policy (RCP8.5), although this does not apply to all regions, at all times. The overall correlation is a result of the fact that climate policy induces systemic changes in the energy system, away from technologies with high greenhouse gas emission levels, which also have high emissions of air pollutants (e.g. coal use without CCS has high emission levels of CO2, but also of SO2). In contrast, the application of energy efficiency or use of renewables reduces both greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutants. The range of air pollution projections, generally, is smaller than that found in the literature. This is mostly due to the RCPs’ shared assumption of stringent air pollution policies increasing proportionally with income (van Ruijven et al. 2008). As such, one may conclude that the RCPs show a range of plausible development pathways for air pollutants and policy interventions, but they are not fully representative of the literature on air polluting emissions, as the set does not include scenarios which assume that very little or no reduction of emissions will be achieved. This may limit the use of the RCPs for specific air pollution applications.
Brand new pollutants throughout the RCPs were downscaled in order to 0.5° ? 0.5° grids each markets (Masui ainsi que al. 2011; Riahi et al. 2011; Thomson ainsi que al. 2011; Van Vuuren et al. 2011a)-allowing its use in atmospheric weather and you may biochemistry designs (Fig. 8). The outcomes reveal that for many smoke, https://hookupfornight.com/lesbian-hookup/ pollutants is actually centered during the particular section (e.grams. Eastern Us, West Europe, Eastern China and Asia). Furthermore, an over-all trend can be indexed all over all RCPs and you will fumes, proving you to definitely pollutants commonly end up being apparently significantly more centered during the currently low-earnings regions.
Concentrations away from carbon dioxide
The greenhouse gas concentrations in the RCPs closely correspond to the emissions trends discussed earlier (Fig. 9). For CO2, RCP8.5 follows the upper range in the literature (rapidly increasing concentrations). 5 show a stabilizing CO2 concentration (close to the median range in the literature). Finally, RCP2.6 has a peak in CO2 concentrations around 2050, followed by a modest CO2, by the end of the century. For CH4 and N2O, the order in which the RCPs can be placed are also a direct result of the assumed level of climate policy. The trends in CH4 concentrations are more pronounced, as a result of the relatively short lifetime of CH4. Emission reductions, as in the RCP2.6 and RCP4.5, therefore, may lead to an emission peak much earlier in the century. For N2O, in contrast, a relatively long lifetime and a modest reduction potential imply an increase in concentrations, in all RCPs. For both CH4 and N2O, the concentration levels correspond well with the range in the literature. Further information on the calculations of concentration can be found in Meinshausen et al. (2011b)